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spartina anglica polyploidy

Is hybridisation a threat to In extensive crossing studies, Ownbey and McCollum (1953) produced F1 hybrids between T. dubius and T. pratensis, the parents of the allotetraploid T. miscellus, and found that the F1s differed dramatically in the morphology of the head of flowers based on which species was the maternal parent. This low conductance reduces water loss and therefore unit carbon gain can be achieved for reduced water loss. However, they are very time-consuming and lack the efficiency of molecular techniques, which can supply more information in a shorter period. The second morphological complex contains species characterized by fleshy and succulent culms, spikelets less closely imbricate than those in the other complexes. Changes in the hybrid – allopolyploid Spartina system appear mostly of epigenetic nature. Because bottlenecked populations typically have low genetic diversity and hence should have reduced evolutionary potential, it is argued that this phenomenon could be simply explained by high levels of ‘preadaptation’ among the most successful exotic species with traits that lead to high fitness in new environments (e.g., high dispersal rates and competitive ability). Spartina species are tetraploid, hexaploid or dodecaploid perennials, most of them being native to the New World. ) and their hybrid ( Mimicry is a fascinating evolutionary adaptation exhibited by some crop weeds in response to the strong directional selection typical of agricultural cultivation (Barrett, 1983). Although more than half of all plant species are directly or indirectly the by-products of allopolyploid speciation, allopolyploid speciation is relatively rare in animals (White, 1978). For example CAM is currently known from 33 families (Smith and Winter, 1996), including monocots, dicots, ferns and the primitive seed plant Welwitschia (Gnetopsida). In strict CAM plants, stomata are closed in daytime and open at night, so minimizing water loss; again succulence is a necessary feature since evaporative cooling cannot occur and the plant relies on the high specific heat of the stored water acting as a heat sink (cf. Carbon dioxide fixation by PEP carboxylase is not in itself novel; it is the initial event of another photosynthetic syndrome known as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), characteristic of desert succulents but also of a surprising range of other plant types (Ting, 1985) and it also occurs in non-photosynthetic tissues. Moreover, mussel beds and oyster beds can influence water quality by filtering the water (Dolmer, 2000; Newell, 2004) and provide a habitat for a large, biodiverse community (e.g. This fingerprinting technique involves the restriction of genomic DNA by two restriction enzymes (here, EcoRI –MseI and PstI –MseI) followed by selective amplification of a subset of the restriction fragments, and has been used successfully for the screening of structural changes in polyploids (Liu et al., 2001; Ozkan et al., 2001). A ‘genomic stasis’ has been reported in the allopolyploid Gossypium species in both short‐term (Liu et al., 2001) and long‐term (Senchina et al., 2003) of the evolutionary time scale. Muhlenberg. The allopolyploid S. anglica resulted from chromosome doubling of S. × townsendii. The Greater Phenotypic Homeostasis of the Allopolyploid Gene expression variation in natural populations of hexaploid and allododecaploid Spartina species (Poaceae). The male sterile F1 hybrid Spartina x townsendii subsequently produced, via doubling of chromosomes, a new fertile species Spartina anglica. In the present paper, we investigated PAH tolerance following allopolyploidization in Spartina alterniflora, S. maritima and their derived allopolyploid species S. anglica. Of 27 epiphytic bromeliads examined for CAM by Medina and Troughton (1974), 13 showed no dark CO2 fixation and discriminated strongly against the stable isotope 13C (a characteristic of initial Rubisco fixation and not shown where initial fixation is by PEP carboxylase; see p. 179); these were considered to be C3 plants. Of course, not all introduced species benefit significantly from these genetic processes; for instance, some invasive NIPS are known to have limited genetic diversity and evolutionary capacity as a result of small founder population size. A molecular phylogeny of the Spartina genus has been recently performed using nuclear (Waxy and ITS) and chloroplast (TrnL‐TrnT spacer) DNA sequences (Baumel et al., 2002a). Spartina anglica C. E. Hubbard: a natural model system for analysing early evolutionary changes that affect allopolyploid genomes. Chapter 4, p. 179). In CAM, however, fixation occurs at night and CO2 is released again in the daytime for photosynthesis; the malic acid produced by fixation is stored in the vacuole at night and transported back into the cytoplasm and decarboxylated in daylight (Lüttge and Smith, 1982). More specifically the respective roles of hybridization and genome duplication in the success of newly formed allopolyploid species are explored. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Land was reclaimed within Holes Bay for construction of infrastructure and industrial buildings, reducing the area of water for the sediment to be deposited. Hybridization, rather than genome duplication, appears to have shaped the allopolyploid genome at both the structural and epigenetic levels. The number of recurrent origins varies considerably, and may be as few as two (Soltis and Soltis, 1993) or as many as 21 (or possibly even more) for Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae) (Soltis et al., 1995). within Spartina spp., a distinctive example of interspecific hybridization is Spartina anglica which originated in England. late 1950s/early 1960s would reduce nutrients from sewage entering Holes Bay, but it would not completely eradicate them as nitrogen removal technology was not introduced until 2008 (Jones, D. (Wessex Water) pers. Glycine tabacina (Fabaceae), an allopolyploid, has formed at least six times in Australia (Doyle et al., 2004). The position of S. densiflora is interesting to consider: a sample collected from California has been analysed by Baumel et al. Epigenetics and its Implications for Plant Biology 2. Impacts on biodiversity are no less dramatic. 1960–70 (Fig. Again, Otto and Whitton (2000) estimated that polyploidization may represent 2–4% and 7% of all speciation events in angiosperms and ferns, respectively. Polyploidy has been very significant in plant speciation. C3 plants cannot lower internal CO2 concentrations below about 250 μll−1 (25 Pa) because of the oxygenase capacity of Rubisco, which results in the phenomenon known as photorespiration – effectively reverse photosynthesis. Uniformity of the nuclear and chloroplast genomes of Spartina maritima (Poaceae), a salt-marsh species in decline along the Western European Coast. Evolutionary dynamics of Waxy and the origin of hexaploid Spartina species (Poaceae). Careful estimations of the divergence time between species from different ploidy levels should provide critical explanations to such issues. Recent hybridization and allopolyploid speciation in the hexaploid lineage of Spartina, as a consequence of S. alternaflora introductions. Such investigations based on experimental hybridization and cytogenetics were essential in earlier times (and still remain useful) for determining what was taking place in polyploid formation. These activities would have likely caused an increase in erosion of the heathland which could have brought in more minerogenic sediment into Holes Bay and caused SARs to increase. The tetraploid S. spartinae (syn. Godfree, B.R. Interestingly, most changes are repeatable in both hybrids. This behaviour has been termed CAM-idling (Rayder and Ting, 1983) and is distinct from CAM-cycling (Ting, 1985), where organic acid levels fluctuate, although normal daytime C3 fixation continues. One of the most conspicuous contributions of the recent development of molecular markers and genomic approaches to our understanding of the speciation process is the awareness that reticulate evolution is even more frequent than previously thought. 7.7). This system allows investigations of the early evolutionary changes that accompany stabilization of a new allopolyploid species in natural … This hybrid displays the features that have been previously reported for S. × neyrautii, including morphological resemblance to S. alternifora and pollen sterility. Mobberley (1956) noticed that in the northern portion of the east coast range, plants have fewer and longer spikes than those from the southern portion and from Chile. The native geographic distribution of the genus centers on the east coast of North and South America, with fewer species on the west coast of North America, Europe, and north Africa. An example would be the recent speciation of allopolyploid Spartina — S. anglica; the polyploid plant is so successful that it is listed as an invasive species in many regions. Breeding systems, hybridization and continuing evolution in Avon Gorge Sorbus. The genus Spartina represents a well‐supported monophyletic lineage in the subfamily Chloridoideae (Hsiao et al., 1999), with most species originating from the New World. different methylation state of the restriction site in the parents, the hybrid and the allopolyploid) in S. × townsendii; only one methylation change (over 34) was specific to S. anglica, indicating that epigenetic changes are triggered by hybridization rather than by genome duplication. Hybridization and polyploidy are well illustrated in the genus Spartina. However, rapid invasion and dramatic ecological changes in the colonised areas have led to the development of various local policies designed to control spread of the species. Molecular Evidence for Natural Hybridization between Cotoneaster dielsianus and C. glaucophyllus. Long et al. ) Laura H. Crossley, ... Ian W. Croudace, in Marine Protected Areas, 2020. ca. This latter species arose via polyploidy and hybridiza-tion between the British native S. maritima (Curtis) Fern. The Role of Hybridization in Plant Speciation. There are four distinct phases in a 24 hour cycle of CAM. 1) and the early effects of genome duplication in the young (less than 150 yr old) allopolyploid populations of S. anglica that are expanding around the world (Ainouche et al., 2004). Less parental additivity of the methylation patterns (57.1%) is encountered in the hybrids (Table 2) than structural additivity reported above with AFLP (89.7%, Table 1). The allopolyploid S. anglica inherited 492 (99.4%) of the fragments from S. × townsendii, and displayed only two new DNA fragments, with three additional ‘S. After a period of uncertainty concerning chromosome numbers of Spartina, Marchant (1968) was the first to establish that the basic chomosome number in Spartina is × = 10, as in most other Chloridoideae. Spartina alterniflora plants spread rapidly with greater tolerance of tidal submersion (Daehler & Strong, 1997). F1 hybrids produced between two established related species are often sterile because chromosomes lack sufficient homology to pair well at meiosis. Spartina species are tetraploid, hexaploid or dodecaploid perennials, most of them being native to the New World. 1940s–70s which has already been explained to be a result of industrial development as evidenced from the elemental proxy record. Spartina anglica is now widespread along the English coast and is highly successful. Ten (1.3%) and 27 (3.2%) changes were unique to S. × townsendii and S. × neyrautii, respectively. Since C4 photosynthesis was initially discovered in and is largely confined to tropical plants, it was at first thought to be a distinct evolutionary line, but since both C3 and C4 species occur in single genera such as Atriplex (Björkman et al, 1971) and Euphorbia (Webster et al., 1975) this is obviously not so. Spreading Spartina species appear to have fewer insect and avian herbivores in their new ranges. Combined with increased erosional activities from the heathland surrounding Holes Bay, this would cause an increase in SARs in HB1. Therefore, we focus in this paper on organisms for which the temporal and spatial scale of their engineering capacity is much larger than their own spatial and temporal scale (Bergen et al., 2001; Hastings et al., 2007). . Mobberley (1956) delineated three complexes of species on the basis of morphology. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. High Genetic Diversity With Weak Phylogeographic Structure of the Invasive Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) in China. Spartina foliosa is a morphologically uniform species (Mobberley, 1956) and differs from S. alterniflora by few phenotypic (e.g. Other temperate species, such as Jovibarba sobolifera, Sedum acre and several Sempervivum species have CAM (Osmond et al., 1975); all are succulent members of the family Crassulaceae, from which the syndrome takes its name. The major distinctions between C3 and C4 plants are listed in Table 2.6. The postulated explanation is that they are unable to compete for CO2 (as dissolved HCO3−) with other aquatic plants in the daytime, but can utilize HCO3− at night by a CAM mechanism. 1950s continually increased, which would be expected to apply associated pressure on Poole STW and perhaps an associated increase in nutrients from sewage entering Holes Bay. alterniflora– fragment’ losses. Characteristics of C3 and C4 photosynthesis. In Tragopogon miscellus, for example, chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) evidence was used to confirm that this tetraploid had formed at least twice. Chromosome doubling in this hybrid gave rise to a new fertile allopolyploid species, Spartina anglica (2n = 122–124), a vigorous and aggressive perennial plant that has been actively colonising British salt marshes since its formation (Hubbard, 1968; Raybould et al., 1991a). The split between the hexaploid and the tetraploid lineages seems very ancient (Baumel et al., 2002a) and has been followed by the disappearance of the diploid ancestors. UMR CNRS 6553 University of Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu. (c) Polyploidy is another type of chromosome mutation. Ecosystem engineering species are organisms that change biotic or abiotic materials, thereby controlling availability of resources to other organisms (Jones et al., 1994, 1997). Empty arrows represent maternal genome donors in the hybridization events. No hybrids between S. anglica and its native parental species have been found in the sites where the two species co‐occur (Baumel et al., 2001; Yannic et al., 2004). Other examples of recurrent polyploidy from the premolecular literature include species of Madia (Asteraceae) (Clausen et al., 1945), Gutierrezia (Asteraceae) (Solbrig, 1971), Mimulus (Scrophulariaceae) (Mia et al., 1964), and Rubus (Rosaceae) (Rozanova, 1938; see Mavrodiev and Soltis, 2001). Soil-geomorphology relationships and landscape evolution in a southwestern Atlantic tidal salt marsh in Patagonia, Argentina. were then able to form bivalent pairs in meiosis, which resulted in a fertile polyploid (having more than two complete sets of chromosomes per nucleus) (NWCB 2005). Invasive Spartina species induce major geomorpholgical changes in tidal habitats by enhancing rates of sediment accumulation. Phase IV is the transition back to Phase I which is triggered by the exhaustion of the malate store (Fig. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements and satellite DNAs in polyploid Spartina species. foliosa. Spartina densiflora is a variable species with large a distribution in southern America, on both the East coast of Brazil and Argentina and the West coast of Chile. Ancient Gene Duplicates in Gossypium (Cotton) Exhibit Near-Complete Expression Divergence. During ca. Salinity Effects on Germination and Plant Growth of Prairie Cordgrass and Switchgrass. William G. Lee, in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition), 2001. 1940–70. Evidence of Whole-Genome Duplication. After the hybridization site has been severely disturbed by land reclamation and airport construction, the survival of S. × neyrautii was questioned in the 1970s (Hubbard et al., 1978). (B) Reciprocally formed Tragopogon miscellus populations differ in their floral morphologies. Spartina alterniflora Loisel., a halophyte grass model to dissect salt stress tolerance. S. anglica is a fertile polyploid derived from the hybrid S.alterniflora × townsendii ( S. alterniflora × S. maritima ), first found when American S. alterniflora was introduced to southern England in about 1870 and came into contact with the local native S. maritima. The ITS data place this sample in the same clade as S. arundinacea and S. ciliata in the ‘clade II’ (bootstrap support: 100%). This results in the establishment of a new fertile sexually reproducing tetraploid species, S. anglica, with a full complement of chromosomes from S. maritima and S. alternifolia (AABB) that can produce normal gametes (ab). None of the examined populations from this region displayed both hybrid pattern and dodecaploid genome size, indicating that allopolypoidisation did not occur in this region as it occurred in southern England. The intensification of human–caused intercontinental exchanges over the two last centuries has dramatically increased the dispersal of species and their introduction outside their native range, creating new opportunities for hybridization with native species. Hybridization and polyploidy have long been recognized as major phenomenons promoting genetic diversity (e.g. However, despite the low nuclear DNA variation recorded in the parental species S. alterniflora and S. maritima from Western Europe (Baumel et al., 2001; Yannic et al., 2004), few Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) markers allowed us to differentiate the genotypes of S. alterniflora and S. maritima that have been involved in the parentage of S. × townsendii on one hand and of S. × neyrautii on the other hand (Baumel et al., 2003). As the parental species were found to be genetically depauperate in Western Europe (Raybould et al., 1991b; Yannic, 2001; Yannic et al., 2004), S. anglica has resulted from either a unique hybridization event or from multiple events involving similar parental genotypes. Hybridization, polyploidy and clonality influence geographic patterns of diversity and salt tolerance in the model halophyte seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum). mid-1950s (Fig. Diversity in leaf anatomy, and stomatal distribution and conductance, between salt marsh and freshwater species in the C4 genus Spartina (Poaceae). Present‐day sympatry belies the evolutionary origin of a high‐order polyploid. Systematic characterization and quantification of Rubiaceae-type cyclopeptides in 20 Rubia species by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics. Evidence for evolution of increased competitive ability involving this mechanism (known as the ‘EICA hypothesis’; Blossey and Nötzold, 1995), along with other evolutionary processes, has been postulated as explaining the tendency for some NIPS to exhibit a lag phase before becoming invasive. Because the internal CO2 concentration in the leaf is lower than in C3 plants, and the gradient between air and mesophyll across the stomata is steeper, the same rate of CO2 diffusion can be achieved with stomata less open, giving a lower stomatal conductance. In France, another sterile hybrid has been described on the Spanish border and has been called Spartina × neyrautii (Foucaud, 1897). 34.3). Most of these involve increases in additive genetic variance, which must be present for evolution to occur in response to selection pressure. Many species are thought to be polyploids at some point, but it is most common in plants, with the highest occurrence in ferns and flowering plants. For example, although Grant (1981) did not mention recurrent polyploidization, he was aware that it occurred based on some of his own research in Gilia (Polemoniaceae) (Grant, 2002). This very low internal CO2 concentration increases the concentration gradient across the stomata and hence also the rate of CO2 diffusion, and alleviates one of the limiting factors in photosynthesis at high photon flux densities. An extensive survey of isozyme phenotypes in British populations of the amphidiploid salt marsh grass Spartina anglica and its putative parents has confirmed that the species arose by chromosome doubling in S. × townsendii, a sterile hybrid between S. maritima and S. alterniflora. Bruno, 2000; Van Hulzen et al., 2007). The repeated rRNA genes are not homogenized in the allopolyploid, and both We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Improved the Transcriptional Homeostasis Over that of Both Diploid Parents Chemodiversity of two closely related tetraploid Centaurium species and their hexaploid hybrid: Metabolomic search for high-resolution taxonomic classifiers. This young allopolyploid contains divergent homoeologous subgenomes that have not undergone significant changes since their reunion. (Borough of Poole), pers. Spartina patens (syn. A difference in band patterns indicates a methylation change (Xiong et al., 1999), and the additivity of the parental patterns has been examined in the hybrids and the allopolyploid as mentioned above with AFLP. Several other genetic processes can also apparently increase the fitness of invasive species. (2001) have found that S. anglica populations of Western Europe are composed of one ‘major’ multilocus genotype that is identical to the first generation hybrid S. × townsendii, characterized by the additivity of RAPD and ISSR parental markers. Deviation from strict additivity (i.e. In England (Southampton Bay), hybridization with S. maritima resulted in a sterile hybrid S. × townsendii (Groves & Groves, 1880) that is still growing by vegetative means, forming a vigorous population near Southampton. These data confirmed the hypothesis presented more than 35 years earlier by Ownbey and McCollum (1953) based on less direct methods involving crossing data and comparisons of morphology. Avis, 1989; Anthony et al., 2007). Today, it is well established, based on several lines of evidence, that individual polyploid plant species typically form multiple times (Fig. Considering the extremely weak nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence divergence between the sister S. foliosa and S. alterniflora (Baumel et al., 2002a) and the absence of reproductive barriers (Daehler & Strong, 1997), one could not exclude the hypothesis that the West American S. foliosa might actually result from an ancient dispersal of the East‐American S. alterniflora on the Pacific coast, followed by independent evolution of geographically separated populations. Long‐term genome diploidization in allopolyploid Nicotiana section Repandae (Solanaceae). Contrasting with most allopolyploid species that have formed multiple times through recurrent hybridization (Soltis & Soltis, 1999), several lines of evidence indicate that S. anglica has undergone a severe genetic bottleneck at the time of its formation in England (Raybould et al., 1991a; Ayres & Strong, 2001; Baumel et al., 2001; Ainouche et al., 2004) with S. alterniflora as the maternal genome donor (Ferris et al., 1997; Baumel et al., 2001). In fact, the possibility that a single polyploid species might form more than once does not appear to have been discussed in any of the previous major reviews of polyploidy, including the highly influential discussions by Stebbins (1950, 1971) and Grant (1981). Carbon isotope discrimination analyses show that many species can switch between pathways, and in Frerea indica, the perennial succulent stems have CAM whereas the seasonal leaves, only produced in the wet season, have C3 photosynthesis (Lange and Zuber, 1977). Experience in the United Kingdom resulted in Spartina alterniflora and its derivatives (Spartina x townsendii, Spartina anglica) being widely planted in parts of North America, in regions occupied by native Spartina species, and in areas well outside its native range (e.g., Australia, and New Zealand) where they were similarly successful, especially Spartina anglica. Homoeologous chromosome pairing across the eukaryote phylogeny. Induction can be signalled by a reduction in water availability to the roots, from which a signal moves to the shoots (Eastmond and Ross, 1997). As data are gathered for additional polyploid populations and from multiple markers, the number of estimated independent polyploidization events typically increases. As areas within Holes Bay were filled in by chalk, this meant there was less area for the sediment to deposit in the water. One morphological consequence of CAM physiology is succulence, the accumulation of large volumes of water in the cells, since a large vacuolar volume is required to store the malic acid produced at night. Within 7–14 days of the onset of water stress the activity of PEP carboxylase rises and dark fixation starts, which can be shown to be due to de novo synthesis of the enzyme (Von Willert et al., 1976; Queiroz, 1977), and there is a general trend from C3 to CAM as the season progresses and water becomes scarcer (Fig. Origin of the Spartina genus is another exciting question. Tragopogon (Asteraceae) provides a particularly interesting example of the demonstration of multiple origins prior to the use of molecular markers (Fig. Another reason for the increase in SAR in HB1 post ca. Over the past decade there has been much focus on the potential for plants to experience release from specialist natural enemies (herbivores and diseases) when moved outside of their native range, resulting in increased fitness (the enemy release hypothesis; Keane and Crawley, 2002). As presented above, this common occurrence of hybridization is also strongly supported by the most recent part of the Spartina history. The hybridization of native and introduced Spartina species during the 19th century in the United Kingdom is presently occurring in western North America, where the recently established Spartina alterniflora (introduced) is genetically assimilating the common Spartina foliosa (native) through introgressive hybridization.

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