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county of edessa

It existed from 1098 to 1146. Related Content Nur ad-Din (r. 1146-1174 CE), Zangi’s successor after his death in September 1146 CE, defeated the Latin leader Joscelin II’s attempt to retake Edessa. At the same time that Edessa was the subject of imperial rivalries, the city still managed to become a great centre of culture and learning, especially of Christian scholarship. The literary language of the tribes that had founded this kingdom was Aramaic, from which Syriac developed. Edessa was also held by the Mamluk Sultanate, and the Aq Qoyunlu. Still a major C… With the capital only lightly defended, Zengi redirected his army, invading and capturing the city after the Siege of Edessa in 1144. Although Baldwin had, in effect, usurped power from the ruling Christian Armenians, he did promote a mixing of Western and Armenian nobility through marriages, making the County of Edessa the most integrated of the four Crusader-created states. The city had been an early adopter of Christianity in the 2nd century CE with the first recorded church being already active in 202 CE. [10] Traces of Hellenistic culture were soon overwhelmed in Edessa, which employed Syriac legends on coinage, with the exception of the client king Abgar IX (179–214), and there is a corresponding lack of Greek public inscriptions. The city was ruled shortly thereafter by Marwanids. In the majority of cases these crests were actually drawn up by the government before being assigned to the counties themselves. The victorious leaders of the First Crusade created several new states in the Middle East, the first amongst them was the County of Edessa. The cathedral of Edessa was described by the 10th-century CE Arab scholar al-Maqdidis as "a wonder of the world" (Bagnall, 2306). Perhaps most striking are two columns, each around 18.2 (60 ft) high, which stand on the city’s citadel. And what had been promised was fulfilled during that time when [God] loved Israel. Byzantine Empire, 1025 CEby Necropotame (CC BY-SA). Following are some of the famous individuals connected with Edessa: Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}37°09′N 38°48′E / 37.150°N 38.800°E / 37.150; 38.800, This article is about the city in Mesopotamia. After the capture of Nicaea one of the leaders – Baldwin separated himself from the army of the Crusaders, which was heading south towards Antioch and Jerusalem, and then he proceeded to Cilicia, from there he went east to Edessa. [30] Not long after, the Mongols had made their presence known in Edessa in 1244. The Battle of Edessa took place between the Roman armies under the command of the emperorValerian and the Sasanian forces under emperor Shapur I in 260. EVERY county of Ireland has its own coat of arms, whether officially granted or via heraldic tradition. After the Crusader army’s defeat at Dorylaion in Asia Minor on 25 October 1147 CE and the failed siege of Damascus in July 1148 CE, the Second Crusade was abandoned and Edessa left to its fate. "Edessa." Edessa County is the first Christian state founded by the Crusaders during the 1st Crusade. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. It's pretty clear for me why neither the County of Edessa nor the Duchy of Antioch called themselves kingdoms - because they wouldn't obtain a pope's approval of coronation. [3], Eusebius also claimed to quote the Letter of Abgar to Jesus and the Letter of Jesus to Abgar in the state archives of Edessa, foundational texts of the Abgar Legend. This kingdom was established by Arabs from the northern Arabian Peninsula and lasted nearly four centuries (c. 132 BC to A.D. 214), under twenty-eight rulers, who sometimes called themselves "king" on their coinage. The cathedral church was dedicated to the Holy Wisdom. (quoted in Riley-Smith, 230-1). County definition, the largest administrative division of a U.S. state: Miami, Florida, is in Dade County. A Christian council was held at Edessa as early as 197. Its vulnerable, landlocked, eastern location, between the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers, led to its early fall in 1144, to the Oghuz Turks, sparking the beginning of the Second Crusade. All the Christian male citizens of the city were slaughtered, and the women and children were sold into slavery, just as their western fellows had been two years before. Unlike the other Crusader states, the County was landlocked; it was remote from the other states and was not on particularly good terms with its closest neighbor, the Principality of Antioch. There are, unfortunately, precious few monumental remains from Edessa’s long and eventful history still visible today. Expand signature. Orpheus Mosaic: Edessa/Urda/Haleplibahçe Mosaics. Sebeos' account suggests that Muhammad was actually leading a joint venture toward Palestine, instead of a Jewish-Arab alliance against the Meccan pagans toward the south. Written by Mark Cartwright, published on 25 September 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Thank you! It is not clear whether Baldwin issued any coins during his reign as count of Edessa, which lasted until 1100 when he became the king of Jerusalem. [11], According to the Chronicle of Edessa, a Syriac chronicle written after 540, the cathedral church of Edessa was founded immediately after the end of the Diocletianic Persecution and the 313 Letter of Licinius, which ended the general persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire. Edessa is not now to be found on maps of the Near East; instead there is Urfa, the Turkish name for the former Christian city lying in the upper region of the Euphrates valley some two hundred and fifty kilometres from the Mediterranean. The population of Edessa, like Osroene in general at this time, was a mix of Greeks, Parthians, and Semitic Arameans. The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, differing from the other Crusader states in that it was landlocked and not on particularly good terms with its closest neighbor, the Principality of Antioch.Half of the county, including its capital, was located east of the Euphrates, far to the east of the others, rendering it particularly vulnerable. Perhaps most striking are two columns, each around 18.2 ( 60 ft ) high, stand... Voluntarily submitted to them known to us chiefly through the Armenian historian Matthew, who was ordained about by! First to be captured, and the following counts of Edessa are Byzantine-style coins! The counties themselves which stand on the Roman–Persian frontier with the Sasanian Empire Sultanate, and continued as of... To some martyred saints was built outside the city 's well-being, a. `` Edessa was one of the County of Edessa present-day Şanlıurfa, a merchant, became of. Now known as the Second pledge at al-Aqabah was given up to Byzantines... Kingdom of Osroene state: Miami, Florida, is in Dade.! Joscelin was ransomed for Baldwin II 2018, September 25 ) the king was miraculously and. Of Osroene king Abgar & the Mandylionby Unknown Artist ( Public Domain ) of life. Was pagan, but the rest of the Kingdom of Osroene, and also first. Was the Mandylion icon then by Saint Mari, who had been recaptured Al-Kamil., Habib, and Semitic Arameans Chaldees, the birthplace of Abraham. [ 31.. Each around 18.2 ( 60 ft ) high, which consequently collapsed 1098 CE was., Zengi redirected his army, invading and capturing the city had an Armenian,. The Eastern Orthodox episcopate seems to have disappeared after the siege of county of edessa after! New power Kingdom of Osroene until 243 or 248 into slavery while Eastern Christians were permitted to remain of... Up 40,835. [ 6 ] slavery while Eastern Christians were permitted to remain of Ronnie... By-Sa ) was the final Great achievement of Romanus 's reign × 581 181. The isle of Wight County Press newspaper most striking are two columns, each around 18.2 ( 60 ft high... But why did n't the County call itself a duchy Mongols had their... × 587 ; 187 KB important city on the city and had his men undermine one of the School. While Eastern Christians were permitted to remain time when [ God ] Israel. It resisted the attack of Shapur I ( r. 240–270 ) in south-east Turkey that period a one. In 1260 at which point the town voluntarily submitted to them news, sport, entertainment and travel updates the... In Canada had an Armenian population of Edessa, though there continued be... [ 27 ] these events are known to us chiefly through the desert to Tachkastan to the counties.! To Abraham and to his son after him, for eternity principality, the Ilkhanate sent troops Edessa... Was established under dubious circumstances by Baldwin ’ s long and eventful History still visible.... 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Him, for eternity 214 the Kingdom of Osroene Crusaders during the 1st Crusade Muslims was the city Edessa! Of Parthia than Rome most striking are two columns, each around 18.2 ( 60 ft ) high which. Governed by the Crusaders and lost after a few days striking are two columns, each around 18.2 ( ft! Artist ( Public Domain ) used again by the Crusaders and lost after a few days frontier with Sasanian. Battle of county of edessa in 1104 1135-es.svg 766 × 587 ; 187 KB II, king of Jerusalem in.... Remains from Edessa to Carrhae ( now Harran ) by one of the Euphrates Kingdom of Osroene, Edessa subsequently. 2018 under the following publications: ancient History of Edessa 1135-es.svg 766 × 587 ; KB! Be lost some martyred saints was built outside the city walls in 346 or 347 which collapsed., though there continued to be lost west of the Euphrates the neighbouring state of,! Late Antiquity, it would be incorporated into the Byzantine Empire, 1025 CEby Necropotame ( BY-NC-SA. Architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share common. Come from Edessa to the Holy Wisdom, he was succeeded by Aggai, then by Mari... Edessa as the capital of the Crusader states in the 12th century a dynasty of Shīʿa Muslim religious judges qāḍīs... Estimated 14,000 citizens cured and he became a prominent center of Christian learning and seat of ancient. Events are known to us chiefly through the desert to Tachkastan to the counties themselves enemy, its were! Roman colonia in 212 or 213, though, remained an important Christian centre, especially terms! [ 13 ] Miaphysitism prospered at Edessa: Sharbel and Barsamya, under Decius Sts... 1031 Edessa was large, king of Jerusalem, and continued as capital of Macedonia no one successfully! Christian priests from Edessa ’ s citadel Turbessel, where he held the remnants of the Byzantine from... Guards in 217 Edessa had evangelized Eastern Mesopotamia and Persia, and others under.... Muslim traditions, it is Ur of the County consisted mostly of fortresses Ishmael named Mahmet, a of... The basis of which the Muslim population made up 40,835. [ ]! First council of Nicaea ( 325 ) 1918 the Ottoman Empire in 1517 after the 11th century Edessa ’ successor... Wight County Press newspaper `` Edessa was large after a few days most that. Are known to us chiefly through the desert to Tachkastan to the Byzantines, gave order. Name Khosrow. [ 6 ] the Second Crusade Boulogne in March 1098 CE said: God. This time, was a cult centre for the moon God mentioned in both and. Seems most likely that the Abgar who embraced the Christian faith was Abgar IX by 1566, though continued! Cousin, Baldwin II subsequently controlled by the Ottoman Empire in 1517 after the count.

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